Two Alarms on Olde Station Drive

Two alarms were struck on Sunday night, March 13, 2022, at 8604 Olde Station Drive in Raleigh. Dispatched 7:13 p.m. Two-story, wood-frame, garden-style apartments, with 16 units and 9,680 square-feet. Built 1990.

One person reported trapped in first-floor unit, and people reported jumping off balconies, as units were en route. Working fire dispatch and EMS response upgraded, due to multiple callers, as units were en route.
Battalion 4 then Engine 4 first-arriving.

Waldo Brown photo via WRAL

Second-alarm requested one minute later by Battalion 4, ~7:18 p.m. Rescue initiated with occupant of first-floor apartment rescued, and transported by EMS. Heavy fire with extension into attic. Interior attack with three (or more) lines, with Ladder 4 deployed for aerial stream.

As supply line to Ladder 4 was being hand-jacked, Engine 4 deployed deck gun, to stop fire spread in second-floor unit/attic area. (Did Ladder 4 also flow?). Crews resumed interior work, to attack remaining burning arras. Ladder 15 and Ladder 23 also deployed, at either end of the building.
Staging on Forum Drive. Crews also performed evacuations of units in the building.

Controlled 7:48 p.m. Twelve people displaced, from radio traffic. One resident transported, who later died at the hospital. At least two other residents injured, plus two firefighters treated on scene for burn injuries. Cause determined as unspecified electrical failure.

First alarm: E4, E18, E15, E22, E16 (added?), L4 (on reserve), L15, R16, B4, B5, SO14
Plus: E16, added
Working fire: DC1, INV1, A28
Second alarm: E9, E23, E29, L23, L6, B3, Professional Development Chief
Plus: Safety Chief
EMS10, EMS14, EMS33, EMS34, EMS61, EMS64, M93, D3, D4, T1 (didn’t respond?)

Photos by Google (top left), Marcus Gray on Twitter from video (right), Legeros (bottom)

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Relocating Fire Station 3 – Call for Artists

This is an ongoing blog posting about the project to relocate Raleigh Fire Station 3.


  • 3/14/22 – Call for Artists
  • 3/14/22 – Official Project Site
  • 5/26/21 – Design Contract Awarded
  • 11/5/17 – Property Purchased

March 14, 2022 – Call for Artists

On March 4, the city issued a call for artists, to design artwork for the facade or grounds of new Station 3. The project budget is $126,000, with qualifications submitted no later than April 15, 2022. More information

March 14, 2022 – Official Project Site

Here’s the official project site and includes such details as:

  • Address is 1000 Rock Quarry Road
  • Site is 1.74 acres
  • Budget is $11.5 million
  • Design contract to Huffman Architects. 
  • Project design started September 2021.
  • Final design expected in fall 2022.

May 26, 2021 – Design Contract Awarded

Included in the Consent Agenda for the May 18, 2021, meeting of City Council was authorization of a contract with Huffman Architects, PA, for the design of a new Fire Station 3 at  1000 Rock Quarry Road, for an amount not exceeding $799,988. They were selected from eight firms that responded to a request for qualifications that was issued on November 19, 2020, and were received on December 8. 

The project is for design and construction of a new station, necessitated by the age of the 1951 facility on South East Street, along with inadequate dormitory and parking space. The current station also causes an overlap of service areas that doesn’t allow for maximum response coverage, and reduces the city’s ability to meet the NFPA 1710 deployment standard.

The new facility will be approximately 12,000 square feet, with two apparatus bays to house Engine 3 and a reserve engine or ladder, as needed. 

View agenda item as well as PDF attachment

November 5, 2017 – Property Purchase Authorized

Included in the Consent Agenda for the November 8, 2017, meeting of City Council is authorization to purchase a portion of a parcel addressed as 1034 Bragg Street as a site for replacing Fire station 3. 

The fire station site faces Rock Quarry Road just north of Raleigh Boulevard. View agenda item as well as PDF attachment.

Continue reading ‘Relocating Fire Station 3 – Call for Artists’ »

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Two Alarms on New Bern Avenue

Two alarms were struck on Sunday, February 28, at a house fire at 528 New Bern Avenue. Dispatched 6:57 p.m. Two-story, single-family dwelling with 1,422 square-feet. Built 1925, with both attic and basement space. Subject reported inside structure, later found outside building, in rear. Engine 1 first arriving, did not catch a hydrant. Engine 13 established water supply.

Heavy smoke conditions inside, as well as difficult maneuvering due to contents of rooms, made finding the seat(s) of the fire difficult. Crews later withdrawn as heavy fire conditions presented (and vented through roof?). Exterior operations started, including portable monitor(s) deployed to protect exposure on west side. (The second home also suffered some fire damage.)

Two aerials deployed, Ladder 1 in front of structure, Ladder 12 in rear. (Supplied by Engine 2, from hydrant caught in front of Station 3.) Second-alarm struck for manpower. Believe also third-alarm level for EMS struck. Staging was parking lot at SE corner of New Bern and East, beside Station 3. (They were on a service call, at the time of the first alarm.) Don’t believe either flowed any water.

Controlled 8:54 p.m. Cause determined as accidental, started by space heater in bedroom. No injuries. Google for news reports.

Run card included (first alarm) E13, E1, Sq7, E5, L1, L6, R16, B2, B5, SO14, (working fire) DC1, INV1, A10, (second alarm) E3, E2, E12, L12, L20, B3, (plus) Safety Chief, (medical) EMS40, EMS62, EMS68, EMS70, EMS71, EMS73, EMS78, M94, M96, D1, D7, D9, T1.

See photos by Legeros.

Watch video footage by Legeros.

Listen to recording of radio traffic

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Huntersville Fire History

Would you believe a cab-mounted hose basket? Here’s the coolest vintage truck pic that we’ve seen in a while. Was a 1936 Chevy truck conversions in Huntersville, NC, in Mecklenburg County. Below is a timeline of the department’s history and a few more photos. They’re from Brent Irvin, son of former Fire Chief Larry Irvin, and grandson of former Fire Chief Allen Irvin, via this Facebook thread

Historical Timeline

  • 1923 – Department organized after town installed municipal water system. Hose cabinets and hydrants were located along Main Street.
  • 1927 – Town buys American LaFrance combination hose and chemical truck. Source: Charlotte Observer, Jan 13, 1929.
  • 1927 – Advertisement promoting the town to businesses and industry on May 31, 1927, in Charlotte Observer, notes “Huntersville offers fire protection, in connection with the establishment of their water system. Reduced insurance rates will result from this in the near future, as well as protection to the mill villages, in connection with the mills.”
  • 1929 – Suit filed in county court, that town hadn’t yet paid the outstanding balance of the fire truck, $1,310, and proceedings were started to repossess the truck. [Then what happened? TBD] Source: Charlotte Observer, Jan 13, 1929.
  • 1936 – Town acquires first fire truck, a 1936 Chevrolet with an “air-pressurized water tank,” and, thus, wasn’t classified as a Class A pumper. [Bought new that year? Or created in 1942, see below.]
  • 1942 – Department re-organized, with a fire truck built by the “boys in Agriculture” using the chassis “of the town truck” and adding a fire truck body that had been in storage for a number of years. [ Was this the origin of the 1936 Chevy? ] Source: Charlotte Observer, Jan 25, 1942. 
  • 1942 – Joined the North Carolina State Firemen’s Association, by summer of that year. Source: Secretary report in 1942 proceedings.
  • 1953 – Town buys its first Class A pumper, a Chevrolet/Howe. By that time, the department was housed in the Town Hall building, which included a two-bay fire station.
  • 1955 – Department refrains from signing contract with county, to receive $100 monthly “standby fee.” Mayor informed by Attorney General that the contract requires the department to answer calls anywhere in county. And if the HFD truck should go more than 11 miles from the town limits, and a fire started in town, then the town could be sued. Mayor says town will conduct fundraising campaign to raise money for the volunteer fire department. Source: Charlotte Observer: Feb 10, 1955. 
  • 1956 – First pumper-tanker added, 1953 Ford F-800/Wilson Irons Work/Irvin’s Body Shop pumper-tanker, 500/1500. Enables HVFD to respond outside of city limits, as well as serve existing town residents. At least half of the town’s residents were not served by existing fire hydrants, notes news story. Addition of second truck will meet and exceed the requirements for membership in the Mecklenburg County Firemen’s Association. One truck to remain in town at all times. Both trucks equipped with two-way radios. New cab and chassis received by January 25. Installation of pump and tank to be completed within next 45 days, said Mayor. Overall cost of truck was approximately $5,000. Source: Charlotte Observer, January 25, 1956.
  • 1956 – Rural service started. Operational by June 1956. 
  • 1963 – New rural engine added, 1963 Ford F-700/Wilson Irons Work/Irvin’s Body Shop, 500/500.  
  • 1967 – Second station opens, which later becomes the separate Gilead VFD.
  • 1970 – Department incorporated. Source: NC corporate records.
  • 1971 – New rural engine added, Ford 1972 F-700/Wilson Irons Work/Irvin’s Body Shop, 750/1000. Bought by HVFD.
    Note: From the 1950s through the 1970s, all HVFD and GVFD Ford F-700 trucks and brush truck conversions were built by Wilson Iron Works and Irvin’s Body Shop.
  • 1981 – First ladder truck, 1949 American LaFrance mid-mount, former Charlotte Ladder 4. Bought by HVFD.  
  • 1983 – New “town truck” added, 1982 Ford F-800/American, 1000/1000, with front-mounted pump. This was the last town-purchased piece of apparatus. Going forward, department bought all apparatus and equipment.
  • 1983 – The 1963 Ford F-700 pumper is converted to a tanker by Irvin’s Body Shop, renamed Tanker 5 and expanded to carry 1250 gallons of water. 
  • 1988 – Ladder truck refurbished. 
  • 1989 – Town Hall and water department relocates from shared building, and fire department takes over the entire building. Third apparatus bay added. 
  • 1993? – First custom-cab apparatus added, 1993 Spartan/Quality, 2000/1000. 
  • 1994 – New fire station opens. 
  • 1998 – First custom-built ladder truck, 1998 Spartan Gladiator/Marion/AI, 1500/300/30A/75-feet.
  • 2010 – Gilead VFD merges in May with Huntersville VFD to create Huntersville FD.
  • 2010 – HFD Station 3 opens in October, and placed in service with donated equipment from Mallard Creek VFD, which ceased operations in 2011.
  • 2018 – Station 4 opens in April. 


More Photos

Huntersville Fire Department circa mid-1950s. Courtesy Brent Irvin. 

Huntersville Fire Department circa mid-1950s. Courtesy Brent Irvin. 

Top to bottom, left to right: 1953 Ford F-800/Wilson Irons Work/Irvin’s Body Shop; 1963  Ford F-700/Wilson Irons Work/Irvin’s Body Shop; Gilead VFD in early 1970s; 1993 Spartan/Quality. Courtesy Brent Irvin. 

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Visual History of Mecklenburg County Fire Departments

New history chart. Mecklenburg County fire departments, past ‘n’ present. 

View as JPG (3.3M) or PDF. See also other charts


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Mecklenburg County Map, 1959

You’ve seen this map before of Mecklenburg County fire districts in 1959, created by the county firemen’s association. William Kennedy re-created a digital version, using GIS. He posted as a comment in this Facebook posting of ours. Click to enlarge.

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Early History of Wilkinson Boulevard Fire Department

Wilkinson Boulevard was the first rural fire department in Mecklenburg County, and one of the first rural departments in North Carolina. Its early history is recounted in a 1951 newspaper feature and a 1948 souvenir booklet.

Newspaper Feature, 1951

On May 22, 1951, the Charlotte Observer featured a full-page profile of the county’s then-five rural fire departments:

Souvenir Booklet, 1948

In 1948, the Wilkinson Boulevard Fire Department of Mecklenburg County published a small souvenir booklet. It contained a history of the department, which was the first rural fire department in the county. The early milestones included:

  • 1943, May 1 – Two house on Gary Street are destroyed by fire. They’re less than a mile outside the city limits.
  • Shortly after that incident, an eight-inch water main is completed through the area. 
  • A community committee is formed, and get fire hydrants installed.
  • A fire department is formed and officers are elected. They obtain hose, nozzles, and a hydrant. 
  • Though operational, organizational issues such as liability and membership fees result in nearly all members losing interest.
  • 1946, fall – Interest is restarted in the fire department.
  • 1947, January – New officers are elected and a hose trailer will be purchased that can be pulled by cars. A small hose house is erected at the corner of Crestwood and Wilkinson. And a 1941 Army Holabird pumper is purchased from war surplus, after a fundraiser.
  • A legislative bill is passed giving the county the power to hold elections in a fire district, and tax residents for monies for use in the fire district. 
  • WBFD is incorporated with the state. And a new station is built on a lot at 2925 Wilkinson Boulevard. 
  • 1948, January – After a fire on Remount Road, members realized that a tanker is They buy a 1948 Ford truck and add a 1000 gallon tank and a 500 GPM pump. 

Read the booklet (PDF, 3MB), which is transcribed below:

Continue reading ‘Early History of Wilkinson Boulevard Fire Department’ »

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Excelsior Fire Companies

How many black volunteer fire companies named Excelsior served in our state, back in the day? It appears just three. Shown are Durham (top), Greensboro (middle), and Rocky Mount (bottom). See below for details.


Excelsior Hook and Ladder Company
Housed at 201 Pine Street, now South Roxboro Street
Served from mid-1880s to 1909

Excelsior Hook and Ladder Company
Excelsior Hose Company No. 2
Housed at [goes here]
Served from 1887 to 1926?
Need more information. Were there two companies? Or one, but it either evolved from H&L to hose reel, or staffed two types of apparatus? And did they operate all the way until the implementation of the paid FD in 1926? TBD.

Rocky Mount
Excelsior Hook and Ladder Company
Housed in 100 block of E. Thomas Street
Served from 1896 to 1914


Early Black Firefighters of North Carolina, Annotated – Research by the late Chuck Milligan

Greensboro FD history book, 1990

Professional Firefighters of Durham – Facebook posting on February 20, 2022

Photo Credits

Top – DFD FD on FB, February 11, 2021 –
Anyone have a high-res version of that image, by the way?

Middle – Greensboro City Museum, from Legeros files

Bottom – RMFD history book, 1996, scanned from pages.

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Harper J. Elam and the Little Giant Fire Company

Guest post by Tom Link, retired Charlotte battalion chief and history buff

For those of us who have loved the fire service, we have a special admiration for those firefighters who came before us, the men who built the organizations and established what would become hallowed traditions.

For me, the appeal of the fire service was based on my admiration of the men who did the job. The men who would share their stories and their enthusiasm. The men who would push you to be a better person by their example.

Not many people in the fire service today would know of Harper Johnson Elam, but his love of the fire service created organizations that have been the foundation of the fire service in North Carolina.

Early Years in Charlotte

Harper J Elam’s first involvement in the fire service began in Charlotte at the age of 17 with the creation of a volunteer fire company in 1874. At that time, the Hornet Steam Fire Engine Company was already a well-established volunteer fire company active in the community and its membership closely resembled the list of “who’s who” of Charlotte’s elites at the time. The Hornets had been using an old Clapp & Jones steam fire engine for a number of years, but it was beginning to have some problems. The Hornets petitioned for a new fire steam fire engine and the old Clapp & Jones engine was sold to a scrap dealer. It soon captured the attention of a young Irish mechanic, A.A. “Jake” Hand.

Jake Hand was a young man and did not enjoy the power, prestige or position that members of the Hornet Fire Company possessed. As he looked at the pile of scrap, he saw possibilities for the old engine. He talked a group of friends into helping him repair the old engine. One of those friends was a young printer by the name of Harper J. Elam. Soon, the group decided to form the Pioneer Steam Fire Engine & Hose Company No. 2. The young men asked a Civil War veteran, Captain Frank McNinch, to serve as their president. One requirement for membership was an age restriction… all other joining members were required to be between the ages of 16 and 21.

It was not long before the young men of the Pioneer Steam Fire Engine Company had the opportunity to prove their worth to the people of Charlotte. They pulled the newly repaired and refurbished steam fire engine to a large fire and assisted the Hornet Fire Company in extinguishing a threatening fire. The people were impressed by their enthusiasm and the fact that the young men carried their fire hoses on their shoulders as they pulled their old steam engine. The community soon rallied to help raise money for the purchase of hose reels.

Left to right: J. E. Brown, Harper J. Elam, J. V. Stiteler, 1876.

By 1878, Harper J. Elam was president of the Pioneer Steam Fire Engine Company. Membership had grown and so had efforts to supply the young fire company with uniforms and equipment. In the photo dated 1876 above, Harper J. Elam is standing in the middle with J. E. Brown on the left and J. V. Stiteler on the right. The young men attracted the attention of the young women of Charlotte. Harper J. Elam showed his appreciation for the fundraising efforts of Elizabeth Moyers by issuing a certificate of appreciation from the Officers of the Pioneer Steam Fire Engine Company. They would be married that same year.

Pioneer Steam Fire Engine Company No. 2 resolution, April 6, 1880.

Moved to Greensboro

Harper J. and Lizzie Elam moved to Greensboro in April of 1883. Harper J. Elam is best remembered as one of the founders of what has become the Greensboro News and Record. Greensboro respected him as one of their best fire service advocates. Elam joined the Steam Fire Engine Company No. 1 after moving to Greensboro. In 1887, Harper J. Elam joined with other progressive firefighters to organize the North Carolina State Firemen’s Association. In 1891, Elam was a founding member of the Eagle Hose Company No. 7. and was elected president.

Harper J. Elam, President of Eagle Hose Company No. 7.

In 1889, Harper J. Elam conceived of the idea to create a boy’s fire brigade and to allow them to participate in the upcoming firemen’s tournament in Durham as part of the meeting of the North Carolina State Firemen’s Association. He contacted an old friend in Charlotte, Sinclair Blackwelder, and asked for permission to use his working scale model of the old Pioneer Volunteer Steam Fire Engine.

Sinclair Blackwelder had been one of the original members of the Pioneer Steam Fire Engine Company. He was an apprentice at John Wilkes’ Mecklenburg Iron Works. His father, Lawson Blackwelder, was a veteran of the Mexican-American War and was serving as one of Charlotte’s earliest police officers. Sinclair Blackwelder’s skills allowed him the run of the foundry, and as a project, began the construction of a working scale model of the old Clapp & Jones Steam Fire Engine that was in use by the Pioneers. The model soon appeared at Industrial fairs in the state. Blackwelder agreed to Elam’s request and it was soon packaged for rail shipment to Greensboro.

Harper J. Elam announced his intentions and tendered two requirements: a mother’s permission and a mother’s promise to provide a fireman’s uniform for their son. Soon the Little Giant Steam Fire Engine Company was drilling under the supervision of Elam and Charlie Whittington. Henry Lewis, an engineer of one of the Greensboro fire companies, was enlisted to get the little engine back into working order. Soon, the boys were tearing down Market Street with their fire engine, much to the dismay of anyone on the street or sidewalk. A police officer arrested eight of the boys, but the Mayor interceded on their behalf. The group practiced for three weeks and then traveled to Durham to participate in the tournament. All indications are that they all survived the experience, and most likely several of these young men later served as firefighters in their communities.

 Little Giant Steam Fire Engine Company, undated.

Greensboro Daily News (retrospective), December 13, 1925. 

 Displayed in Charlotte

The Charlotte Fire Department has maintained the old model steam fire engine for many years. It has sat in the lobby of the old training academy, and later in the lobby of the old rented CFD Headquarters on 9th Street. I doubt many people have understood the meaning and value of this unique part of our history.

The old model of the Pioneer’s Clapp & Jones Steam Fire Engine is an important item of memorabilia that contributes to the memory of the early firefighters of Charlotte, Greensboro, and the state of North Carolina. I have great admiration for Harper J. Elam and his forward thinking. What a great way to introduce young people to the fire service. Today, providing young people with the opportunity to experience and learn about the fire service is viewed as a component of cultural change, one of the sixteen Life Safety Initiatives of the National Fallen Firefighters Foundation. It is just one example of his legacy and contributions to our history and traditions.

To my knowledge, Sinclair Blackwelder’s model of the Clapp & Jones Steam Fire Engine has been in the process of restoration. Hopefully, it can be restored to working order once again. Captain Clifford Grayson, the longtime head of the CFD mechanical shop, once told me that the men at the shop had hooked up the old model’s steam whistle and that it rattled all the windows. I hope that I get to hear it as well. I know it can still inspire future generations of firefighters.


Special thanks to Erin Elam and the descendants of Harper Johnson Elam, and to Mike Legeros, who is working on the history of the North Carolina State Firemen’s Association.

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Baltimore Line of Duty Deaths

This is a blog version of a Facebook posting from January 24, 2022.

Terrible news in Baltimore today, January 24, 2022. Three firefighters dead and fourth in critical condition after the partial collapse at a three-story row house, about 6:00 a.m. Killed were Lt. Paul Butrim, Firefighter/Paramedic Kelsey Sadler, and EMT/Firefighter Kenny Lacayo. Hospitalized and in critical but stable condition is EMT/Firefighter John McMaster. See news reports, social media postings, etc.

What’s the historical perspective? Here’s a partial answer. The Maryland Fire-Rescue Services Memorial records 166 members of BCFD that have died in the line of duty since 1866. Between that year and 1994, via data compiled from William Murray’s book “The Unheralded Heroes of Baltimore’s Big Blazes,” there were twelve multi-firefighter fatality incidents..

Below are details and data, plus citations for sources. Readers, check my work. Will update and correct as needed. Also need to look forward, from 1994 to present.


1888, Sep 02 – Box #526 – 7 killed
Sharp Street warehouse fire. Five-story brick double building at 107-109 S. Sharp Street. Alarm time 4:24 a.m. Heavy fire on arrival on the lower floor, front and back. Second and third alarms sounded. While crews were atop a four-story warehouse at 105 S. Sharp Street, to attack the fire through a hole in the wall, the roof of 107 fell onto the roof of 105, and collapsed the entire building, killing seven firefighters.

1955, Feb 16 – Box #012 – 6 killed
Tru-Fit Clothing store at 507 E. Baltimore Street, nine alarms. Six firefighters were killed when the roof and wall collapsed on them during the fire.

1949, Nov 09 – Box #8864- 4 killed
Collision of Engine 46 and Truck 22 at Park Heights and Rogers Avenue, responding to a 3:10 p.m. alarm from Box #8664, reporting a grass fire at Glen and Kay avenues. Four others were injured.

1869, Apr 17 – Box #003 – 3 killed
Chimney collapse at a three-story brick building, that pulled the front wall of the structure down with it, and landing on the men of Engine 1 and Engine 4 in the cellar.

1886, Nov 17 – Box #526 – 3 killed
Burrough Brothers Chemical Work at 92 Camden Street, multi-alarm fire. The Hayes aerial ladder collapsed. It was fully extended with seven pipemen, three hose pipes, and heavy hose. The aerial flipped on its side, and those on the ladder were thrown against the adjacent building. Two died on scene, and third four days later.

1912, Feb 07 – Box #415 – 2 killed
Five-alarm shoe store fire fought over two days on January 7, 1912. Two members of Engine 3 each contracted pneumonia from their exposure during the bitter cold incident. Each died at home, a month later.

1919, Apr 24 – Box #072 – 2 killed
Three alarms at St. Mary’s Industrial School for Boy’s on Wilken’s Avenue Extended. The fire burned for hours and crews later entered the gutted main administration building to extinguish any remaining flames. The second floor balcony collapsed and killed two firemen.

1937, Oct 13 – Box #528 – 2 killed
Five-alarm fire in a three-story brick building. Some fifteen firefighters were working in an alley when a wall collapsed.

1950, Feb 04 – Box #4121 – 2 killed
Manufacturers Clothing Outlet at 121 W. Baltimore Street. Six alarms at a five-story brick double-building. Two members from Engine 15 had gone into the store with a hose pipe, and down a rear stairway, when there was an explosion. Their bodies were found later, several feet inside the structure.

1952, Jun 03 – Box #1039 – 2 killed
Collision of Hose 3 and Truck 9, while responding to a mattress fire. Neither could see nor hear the other, due to a monument that stood in the middle of the street.

1953, Apr 18 – Box #023 – 2 killed (one BCFD member, one salvage corps member)
Collision of Engine 34 and Salvage Corps Wagon 2 at Baltimore and Caroline streets. The BCFD member died at the scene, and the Salvage Corps member was ejected, struck the pavement, and remained unconscious for four years until his death on July 6, 1957.

1956, Jan 11 – Box #288 – 2 killed
Collision of Engine 24 and a tractor-trailer truck at Patterson Park Avenue and Monument Street, while responding to an alarm for a cellar fire. The engine skidded on the rain-soaked street, overturned, and killed two members aboard.


Baltimore Sun – Fatal firetruck crash recalls earlier tragedy – December 15, 2007

Dying to Tell Their Stories – The last two firefighters found after the deadly 1888 Sharp Street fire – November 30, 2017

Maryland Fire-Rescue Memorial – Baltimore City FD Directory

NFFF – Baltimore City Fire Department – Line of Duty Deaths

NFFF – Memorial Monday – Baltimore Warehouse Fire (MD)- September 27, 2021

William A. Murray – The Unheralded Heroes of Baltimore’s Big Blazes – 1995 reprinted edition
Source data via page scans + OCR at

Plus sundry historical newspaper archives, via State Library of North Carolina access.

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